The wave of Bhava arises in the heart when one looks at a person or thing. Bhava (emotions) always stays in the heart. Like one gets excited to see beloved. When the wave of emotion (Bhava) leaves the territory of heart, can easily trace on the face, and through the entire body, it is called being expressive i.e. creation of Rasa.
Arising of Rasa in the audience’s heart is the ultimate aim of theatrical arts. The rasa originates from the emotions in the heart. Therefore, it is equally important to know the Rasa-Bhava for dance education as it is for theatrical education.
When a Drama or Dance being performed and the same emotion of the dancer or actor felt by the audience is a Bhava.
According to Natya Shastra (text on performing art), there are 4 types of Bhava (sentiments/ emotions) –
1. Sthayi Bhava (स्थाई भाव ) – Those emotions that are universal and permanently stable in the heart that can’t be removed are Sthayi Bhava (Permanent). They are always there in the heart and when it gets connected with the other 3 Bhavas, it expresses Rasa. Like love, it arises when we see an activity of a beloved and become Rati Bhava (रति भाव) that is permanent emotion which stays in the heart forever. They can be easily identifiable in the humans. In the Natya Shastra, Bharat Muni has well written that there are nine basic. Sthayi Bhav( स्थाई भाव) i.e. permanent emotions in the human that are
- Rati (Love)
- Hasya (amusement)
- Soka'(शोक)’ (Sorrow)
- Krodha (Anger)
- Utsaha (liveliness)
- Bhaya (Terror)
- Jugupsa (Disgust)
- Vismaya (amazement)
2. Vibhav Bhava ( विभाव ) (Knowledge) – According to Bharat Muni Vibhav Bhava is the knowledge that evoke the reason to know Rasa. They are of two type – Alamban Vibhav आलम्बन (support) and Uddipan Vibhav उद्दीपन (stimulation).
- Alamban Vibhav (आलम्बन विभाव ) – All those sources that creates Bhava in the heart is Alamban Vibhav. For example: Through the support of the actor and actresses, the audience understands the emotions of the character. Therefore actor and actress is Alamban Vibhav (support).
- Uddipan Vibhav (उद्दीपन विभाव) – Moon, moonlight, birds, waterfall, monsoon, or any other activity that evokes or stimulates emotions is Uddipan Vibhav (stimulation). Anything that increases the intensity of Sthayi Bhava, in other words: any activity in the environment that stimulates Bhava emotion in the heart is known as Uddipan Vibhav (stimulation).
3. Anubhav Bhava (अनु-भाव) (subsequent) – The Bhava that stimulate from the activity of the person who is going through arouse of permanent emotion, for example, a person is angry (Raudra Bhava) on someone, get over it by the apology. This is the Bhava that originates after Sthayi Bhava (स्थाई भाव).
4. Sanchari Bhava (संचारी या व्यभिचारी भाव) – (transitory) – These Sanchari Bhava arises with the Sthayi Bhava and merged into it, like ripples in the water. These Bhav are the companion of Sthayi Bhava (Permanent Emotion). These are the fleeting emotions that are dynamic that is why it is called संचारी i.e. transitory.
Sanchari Bhava are of 32 types- Nirveda (disgust), Gilani (torment), Samshaya (doubt), Shram (toil), Dainye (feebleness), Jadta (dullness), Asuya (jealousy), Chinta (anxiety), Vyadhi (sickness), Avega (pride), Garva (agitation), Dhriti (firmness), Smrithi (recollection), Chapalya (inconsideration), Ugrata (ferocity), Trasa (fear), Avahita (attention), Vishada (dejection), Mada (arrogance), Autsukya (eagerness), Mati (determination), Nidra (sleepiness), Moha (perplexity), Prabodha (enlightenment), Harsh (joy), Vreeda (sense of shame), Vitarka (argument), Supta (slumber), Amarsha (anger), Alasya (indolence), Unmeda (madness), Apasmara (forgetfulness), and Marana (death).
FAQ’S Related : Bhava- Bhavabhivyakti
What is Navarasa arise by the sthayi Bhava?
When Sthayi Bhava are nourished by rest of the bhavas i.e. Vibhav Bhava विभाव (Knowledge), Anubhav Bhava अनु-भाव (subsequent) and Sanchari Bhava संचारी या व्यभिचारी भाव- (transitory) is known as Navarasa (expression). Rasa are of 9 kinds – These are Readmore
About the Author: – Neha Khunteta
She is a Kathak Artist and has been associated with it for more than 10 years and the founder of Kathak By Neha the best Kathak dance academy in Jaipur.
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